Interpersonal dependence and differential types of reflection in students – boys and girls

Keywords: gender, differential types of reflection, interpersonal dependence, personal reflection, autonomy, students


The article presents results of the study of interpersonal dependence in the context of reflection as a necessary condition for personal autonomy and the mechanism of constructing and organizing a life perspective in adolescence.

The psychological content of the phenomenon of interpersonal dependence is revealed, its destructive influence on the personality is emphasized, the positive role of reflection as a factor of actualization of the autonomy of the individual and the neutralization of interpersonal dependence is substantiated.

The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship of interpersonal dependence and differential types of reflection in students – boys and girls.

The scientific novelty of the research is determined by the fact that in the work for the first time the peculiarities of the functioning of interpersonal dependence and differential types of reflection on the students were determined, differences in the structure of the interrelationship between these phenomena in students – boys and girls were analyzed.

The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory by R. M. A. Hirschfeld, Relationship Profile Test by R. F. Bornstein (both – in an adaptation by O. P. Makushina) and Differential Test of Reflexivity by D. A. Leontiev and E. M. Osin were applied to solve empirical problems. The sample consisted of 96 students of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. The first group included of 45 boys, the second – 51 girls. For the mathematical processing of data the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used.

It has been established that in both groups an increase in the propensity to unproductive types of reflection is a potential for the development of manifestations of interpersonal dependence. Both boys and girls, with increased introspection, there is an aggravation of destructive overdependence. It was also found that in young men the increase in such manifestations of interpersonal dependence, such as the need for emotional reliance on others, lack of self-confidence, and dependence in general, occurs along with the actualization of the tendency to introspection, while in girls – with the actualization of the tendency to quasi-reflection, together with than in these subjects, destructive overdependence grows. It should be noted that healthy dependence is involved in relationships with the differential types of reflection only in the group of girls, in which its severity increases with increasing ability to systemic reflection and inhibition of quasi-reflection.

Results can be used for gender specification of psychological programs for the prevention and correction of interpersonal dependence in the students age. It is noted that the prospect of further research is to study the psychological characteristics that may act as inhibitors of interpersonal dependence in adolescence.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

O. V. Myloslavska, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University

Department of applying psychology;
Candidate of Psychological Sciences (Ph.D.), Docent.


Zal`munin K.Yu. and Mendelevich V.D., 2014. Chemical and nonchemical addictions in the aspect of comparative addictology [Khimicheskie i nekhimicheskie addiktsii v aspekte sravnitel`noi addiktologii]. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S. S. Korsakova – S. S. Korsakov Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, Vol. 114, No. 5, Iss. 2, pp. 3-8.

Kaminska O.V., 2013. Internet dependence as an actual problem of the present [Internet-zalezhnist’ jak aktual’na problema s’ogodennja]. Naukovì zapiski Nacìonalʹnogo unìversitetu “Ostrozʹka akademìâ” – Scientific proceedings of the National University of “Ostroh Academy”, No. 22, pp. 41-45.

Egorov A.Yu., 2007. Socially Acceptable Forms of Non-Chemical Dependencies [Sotsial`no priemlemye formy nekhimicheskikh zavisimostei]. In: Mendelevich V.D. (ed.). Addictology Guide [Rukovodstvo po addiktologii]. St. Petersburg: Rech`. Pp. 501-520.

Aseeva A.D., 2014. Socio-psychological aspects of dependent behavior in interpersonal relations in adolescence [Sotsial`no-psikhologicheskie aspekty zavisimogo povedeniya v mezhlichnostnykh otnosheniyakh v yunosheskom vozraste]. Ph.D. dissertation. Kursk State University.

Kotsiuba H.O., 2010. Psychological peculiarities of the organization of dependent love in women [Psyholohichni osoblyvosti orhanizatsii uzalezhnenoho kokhannia u zhinok]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University.

Kocharyan A.S., Frolova E.V. and Baru I.A., 2011. Phenomenology of interpersonal relationships disorders [Fenomenologiya narushenii mezhlichnostnykh otnoshenii]. Vìsnik Harkìvsʹkogo nacìonalʹnogo unìversitetu ìmenì V. N. Karazìna. Serìâ Psihologìâ – Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series “Psychology”, No. 48, pp. 73-77.

Frolova Ye.V., 2008. Psychological factors and the dynamics of formation of relations of interpersonal dependence on women [Psyholohichni chynnyky i dynamika formuvannia stosunkiv mizhosobystisnoi zalezhnosti u zhinok]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University.

Gavrilenko Ya., 2013. Prospects for qualitative study of interpersonal dependence in close relationships [Perspektyvy yakisnoho doslidzhennia mizhosobystisnoi zalezhnosti u blyzkykh vzaiemynakh]. Psihologìâ osobistostì – Psychology of personality, No. 1, pp. 238-245.

Gavrilenko Ya., 2013. Psychological configurations of dependent relationships in interpersonal interaction [Psyholohichni konfihuratsii zalezhnykh stosunkiv u mizhosobystisnii vzaiemodii]. Vìsnik Kiïvsʹkogo nacìonalʹnogo torgovelʹno-ekonomìčnogo unìversitetu – Herald of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, No. 5, pp. 94-104.

Gavrilenko Ya.A., 2013. Features of communication in the space of dependent relationships [Osoblyvosti komunikatsii u prostori zalezhnykh stosunkiv]. Psihologìčnì nauki: problemi ì zdobutki – Psychological sciences: problems and achievements, Iss. 4, pp. 73-83.

Odarii T.V., 2011. Individual-typical manifestations of subjective dependence [Indyvidualno-typovi proiavy subiektnoi zalezhnosti]. Naukovij vìsnik Pìvdennoukraïnsʹkogo nacìonalʹnogo pedagogìčnogo unìversitetu ìm. K.D.Ušinsʹkogo – Scientific bulletin of South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K. D. Ushynsky, No. 3-4, pp. 131-140.

Zapesotskaya I.V., 2012. State of dependence: a metapsychological approach [Sostoyanie zavisimosti: metapsikhologicheskii podkhod]. Abstract of D.Sc. dissertation. Sholokhov Moscow State University for the Humanities.

Myroshnyk O.H., 2017. To the problem of reflection’s genesis [Do problemy henezysu refleksii]. Psihologìâ ì osobistìstʹ – Psychology and Personality, No. 1 (11), pp. 41-52.

Khavula R., 2015. The role of personal autonomy in building a life perspective in adolescence [Rol osobystisnoi avtonomii u pobudovi zhyttievoi perspektyvy v yunatskomu vitsi]. Problemi gumanìtarnih nauk. Psihologìâ – Problems of the Humanitarian Sciences. Psychology series, Iss. 35, pp. 313-323.

Yatsiuk N.O., 2016. The problem of moral reflection in modern psychology [Problema moralnoi refleksii u suchasnii psykholohii]. Psihologìâ: realʹnìstʹ ì perspektivi – Psychology: Reality and Perspectives, Iss. 7, pp. 240-244.

Savchenko O.V., Aleksandrova O.G. and Oleynyk N.O., 2017. Metacognitive level of organization of a reflexive personality organization [Metakohnityvnyi riven orhanizatsii refleksyvnoi orhanizatsii osobystosti]. Vìsnik Dnìpropetrovsʹkogo unìversitetu. Serìâ psihologìâ – Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series: Psychology, Iss. 23, pp. 99-109.

Gavrilenko Ya.A., 2011. Socio-psychological factors of interpersonal dependence in early youth [Sotsialno-psykholohichni chynnyky mizhosobystisnoi zalezhnosti v rannii yunosti]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Institute of Social and Political Psychology of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine.

Myloslavska O.V., 2011. Emotional intelligence as a component of communicative competence of students [Emotsiinyi intelekt yak skladova komunikatyvnoi kompetentnosti studentiv]. Ph.D. dissertation. V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University.

Bornstein R.F., Languirand M.A., Geiselman K.J., Creighton J.A., West M.A., Gallagher H.A. and Eisenhart E.A., 2003. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: A Self-Report Measure of Dependency-Detachment. Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 80, Iss. 1, pp. 64-74.

Makushina O.P., 2006. Methods of psychological study of deviant behavior [Metody psikhologicheskogo izucheniya deviantnogo povedeniya]. Voronezh: Izdatel`stvo VGU.

Hirschfeld R.M.A., Klerman G.L., Gouch H.G., Barrett J., Korchin S.J. and Chodoff P., 1977. A Measure of Interpersonal Dependency. Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 41, Iss. 6, pp. 610-618.

Uji M., Takagishi Y., Adachi K. and Kitamura T., 2013. Interpersonal Dependency Inventory: Its Construct Validity and Prediction of Dysphoric Mood and Life Functioning via Negative Life Events. Psychology, [online] Vol. 4, No. 12, pp. 930-936.

Melnikova V.B., 2014. Autonomy of personality: a foreign approaches review [Avtonomiya lichnosti: obzor zarubezhnykh podkhodov k problematike]. Psihologičeskie issledovaniâ – Psychological Studies, [online] Vol. 7, No. 37. Available at [Accessed 18 December 2018].

Leontiev D.A. and Osin E.N., 2014. “Good” and “Bad” Reflection: From an Explanatory Model to Differential Assessment [Refleksiya “khoroshaya” i “durnaya”: ot ob``yasnitel`noi modeli k differentsial`noi diagnostike]. Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 110-135.

How to Cite
Myloslavska, O. V. (2018) “Interpersonal dependence and differential types of reflection in students – boys and girls”, Law and Safety, 71(4), pp. 111-117. doi: 10.32631/pb.2018.4.16.