Legal Principles for the Use of Special Knowledge while Investigating Murders
Based on the analysis of the Constitution of Ukraine and the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine, the author has established the relationship between the general principles of criminal proceedings and some provisions of the Basic Law of Ukraine.
According to the results of the analysis of the provisions of criminal procedural legislation and regulatory acts regulating the activities of experts in case of their involvement in criminal proceedings, it has been determined that the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine does not contain an exhaustive list of principles of applying special knowledge of experts, however some of them are defined as the principles of forensic activities in the Law of Ukraine “On Forensic Examination”. For the first time, the author has determined the very general principles of criminal proceedings define the activity of experts in criminal proceedings.
The author has singled out two components in the studied category: legal and organizational ones. The author has determined what should be understood as the legal principles for the use of special knowledge of experts while investigating murders, as well as their list. It has been established that the concept of organizational principles includes procedural features of involving experts.
The author has provided a brief description of the principles of forensic activity, defined in the Law of Ukraine “On Forensic Examination”. The author has suggested provisions that should supplement this Law. Besides, the author has provided examples on how the implementation of the principles established by the legislator is ensured.
It has been established that the purpose of involving an expert in criminal proceedings is to clarify the circumstances relevant to criminal proceedings, for the solution of which special knowledge is required. The author has substantiated the provisions, according to which the involvement of an expert in criminal proceedings requires the existence of two grounds: legal and factual, the content of which is revealed in the provisions of the article.
The formulated conclusions are theoretical categories that determine the direction and content of the activities of experts and law enforcement officers in case of the application of special knowledge in criminal proceedings, in particular during the investigation of murders. The practical significance of the obtained results is to ensure a prompt, complete and impartial investigation and is one of the guarantees of the tasks of criminal proceedings.
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