Formalization of Methods in Criminalistics
Scientific works on formalization of methods in criminalistics have been analyzed in the article. Despite the importance and relevance of these issues, it has been established that there is a number of unresolved issues in the theory of forensic science, as well as in investigative and judicial practice regarding the possibilities of formalizing methods and their implementation, which require separate independent research and in-depth reflection. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to clarify the methods used to detect and investigate crimes and the possibilities of their formalization in criminalistics.
Formalization methods in criminalistics have been considered. It has been found out that the most successful is their division into formalization of theoretical methods and formalization of practical methods. Methods of theoretical level have been researched. It has been emphasized that the use of mathematical methods contributes to the development of the most accurate practical recommendations, which allow to approach many issues of the theory and practice of forensic science from new positions.
The author has considered the modeling method and has argued that it creates the preconditions for the use of formalization, since acting as prototypes, plans, hypothetical constructions of all kinds, this process is presented to investigators as a complex of interrelated transformations in the form of description. The development and use of forensic material models in the management of an investigative situation allows investigators to use, by analogy, forensic algorithms and investigative programs. Thus, the formalization is carried out in the form of the transition of content into a sign system. It is designed to address the tasks faced by investigators and directly related to the investigative situation existing at the time of the investigation.
It has been found out that the formalization of forensic knowledge methods allows the use of such knowledge in the process of solving problems and making decisions by means of signs and symbols, which may increase the capacity of investigators to solve problems at all stages of crime investigation in different conditions of uncertainty.
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