Determining the Grounds for Conducting Examination through the Prism of Investigative Practice
The problems of determining the grounds for such an investigative (search) action as an examination have been clarified. The purpose of the article is to determine the grounds for conducting an examination, as well as to distinguish problematic aspects that arise in the investigative practice at the initial stage of conducting an examination.
It has been determined that there must be factual and legal grounds for conducting an examination. The factual grounds, in contrast to the legal ones, are not defined in the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine. However, their legislative specification is inexpedient, since it is impossible to predict all cases for this investigative (search) action in advance. The factual grounds are the data recorded in the materials of criminal proceedings, for example, that the body of a suspect, witness or victim has traces of a criminal offense or special signs, the detection of which is important for criminal proceedings. The legal ground for conducting the examination is the decision of the prosecutor (Part 2 of the Art. 241 of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine).
The study of investigative practice has revealed investigators, prosecutors’ violations of the procedure of conducting the examination, in particular failure to present the prosecutor’s decision and “substitution” of the examination with the crime scene search during the recording the person’s handwipes, which are the grounds for the court to declare the evidence inadmissible. The analysis of the investigative practice showed the need for legislative amendments in regard to conducting the examination. We should stipulate the possibility to conduct the examination by the order of an investigator, followed by notification of a prosecutor. The indicated propositions should be implemented in Part 2 of the Art. 241 of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine.
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